Preparing for measles in Somerset; what to look out for, how to safeguard residents, patients and colleagues
Measles is a highly infectious and is the most infectious of all disease transmitted through the respiratory route. The most effective way to control measles is by vaccination of 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR). Measles is a severe disease particularly to individuals who are:
- Young infants
- Pregnancy – it can increase the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, or preterm delivery.
Measles is caused by a virus that spreads very easily. One case of measles can infect 9 out of 10 of unvaccinated close contacts.
Transmitted through the respiratory route (airborne or droplet spread) or by direct contact with the nasal or throat secretions of infected persons.
Signs and Symptoms:
Prodromal phase: 2-4 days before the rash appears:
- High fever – this typically increases and peaks around onset of the rash.
- Coryza (runny nose)
- Koplik spots – small white/bluish spots on the inside cheeks/back of the lips. May appear 1-4 days before the rash and disappears on day 2 of the rash (so may not be present when case presents)
- Usually starts on the face (behind ears, on hairline)
- Spreads to trunk and rest of the body and can become generalised
- Red/brown spots, flat, with sometimes small, raised bumps on top (maculopapular) and increase over 2-3 days
- Rash gradually expands and can join to form blotchy patches particularly on the face and trunk
- Usually not itchy and no blisters
- Generally, lasts for 3 to 7 days
- More difficult to spot on dark skin
- 10 to 12 days from exposure to onset of symptoms
- can vary up to 21 days infectious period: 4 days before onset of rash to 4 days after onset of rash.
Reporting suspected cases or identified contacts
Please report all suspected cases or identified contacts to United Kingdom Health Security Agency (UKHSA) via Tel. 0300 303 8162 ensuring you have all the necessary patient details, please complete the South West Telephone Notification of Measles form as a guide to collect all information required by UKHSA to assist with assessment.